Geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD) is the study of the dynamics of flows influenced by rotation or stratification or both––on Earth and beyond. GFD is also an approach to solving ocean and atmospheric dynamics problems, building a hierarchy of analytical and computational models. I’m interested in many GFD problems, not only those that are directly relevant to the oceanic and climate phenomena I study, but also some that have no obvious application. These GFD problems inspire me and help me balance societally relevant science and curiosity-driven science.

Two regimes of mixing: (a) non-local mixing (stirring dominated by large scales) and (b) local mixing (stirring dominated by small scales). The eddy diffusivity is the same in both cases, albeit the spectrum of the flow (and thus the distortion of tracer contours) is wildly different.